Perovskite Solar Cell Alternatives



Consensus logo

Here are some alternative materials to spiro-OMeTAD for use in perovskite solar cells:

  1. Spiro[fluorene-9,9′-xanthene] based HTM (X59): Exhibits similar performance to spiro-OMeTAD with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.8% (Bi et al., 2016).

  2. Polyfluorene derivatives (TFB and PFB): These have high hole mobility and good processability, potentially outperforming spiro-OMeTAD (Zhu et al., 2014).

  3. Copper iodide (CuI): A promising inorganic hole conductor with a PCE of 6.0% and significantly higher electrical conductivity compared to spiro-OMeTAD (Christians et al., 2014).

  4. Spiro-linked organic small molecules: These are being researched as alternatives to overcome disadvantages such as high synthetic cost and complex synthesis route of spiro-OMeTAD (Gangala & Misra, 2018).

  5. Metallated Macrocyclic Derivatives (MMDs): They offer low-cost, high yield, hydrophobic materials with minimal synthesis steps, showing PCEs around 19% (Reddy et al., 2019).

  6. Spiro-CN-OMeTAD and spiro-PS-OMeTAD: Incorporating Lewis base functionality into spiro-OMeTAD structure for enhanced performance (Xu et al., 2020).

  7. Amorphous Carbazole-Based HTM: Demonstrated PCE of 16.5%, slightly lower than Spiro-OMeTAD, but promising due to low-cost synthesis (Magomedov et al., 2017).

These alternatives highlight the ongoing research and development in finding more cost-effective and efficient materials for perovskite solar cells.